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[국내 학위논문]

정이(程?: 1033 ? 1107, 자 正叔, 호 伊川)의 사상 전반에 걸쳐 궁리(窮理)의 지위는 핵심적이다. 그러나 그것이 구체적으로 어떤 과정이었는지에 대해서는 여전히 이견이 많다. 특히 문제가 되는 것은 정이가 궁리의 대상을 전혀 한정하지 않았다는 데 있다. 그는 자연 사물에 대해서 궁리(窮理)하는 것과 주체의 내면에 대해서 궁리(窮理)하는 것을 전혀 구분하지 않았다. 이는 ‘가치’와 ‘사실’을 뒤섞은 것으로 간주되면서 많은 논란을 일으켰다. 본 논문의 문제의식은 여기서 출발한다. 가치를 찾기 위해 사실세계를 궁구(窮究)한다는 것은 무슨 의미인가? 정이가 주장한 궁리(窮理)의 이러한 특성으로 인하여 학자들은 그를 이원론적(二元論的), 객관주의적(客觀主義的), 외향적(外向的), 분석적(分析的) 사상가로 평가하고, 정호(程顥: 1032 ? 1085, 자 伯淳, 호 明道)를 그와 정확히 반대가 되는 인물로 단정하는 경향이 있다. 하지만 이러한 연구들은 대개 정호의 사상의 고유성을 부각시키기 위해 정이를 그와 대척점에 있는 것으로 설정하려다가 정이와 정호가 근본적으로 공유하고 있던 보다 큰 그림을 놓치곤 한다. 그것은 곧 이정이 공히 내외(內外), 주객(主客), 천인(天人) 등을 일원적(一元的)으로 파악했다는 사실이다. 정호를 기준점으로 정이를 분석하는 대신, 그들과 동시대를 살았던 북송(北宋)의 다른 사인(士人)들을 기준으로 이정을 분석해보면 그들 형제가 공유했던 토대가 자연스럽게 드러난다. 이 토대가 곧 만물의 일원성(一元性), 혹은 통일성(統一性, unity)이다. 이 대전제에 기초하여 정이의 궁리(窮理)설을 연구해보면 그것이 자연 사물과 내면의 심성을 가리지 않고 모든 것을 대상으로 삼는 광범위한 공부였다는 사실이 결코 모순적이거나 부적절한 주장이 아니었음을 알 수 있다. 정이에게 있어 ‘사실’세계란 지극한 ‘가치’, 즉 “인(仁)”의 무궁한 발현이었으며, 이는 인간 심성(心性)의 “인(仁)”과 조금도 다르지 않은 것이었다. 그러므로 궁(窮)의 대상이 무엇인지와 무관하게 우리는 그것을 탐구함으로써 인(仁)을 체찰(體察)할 수 있는 것이다. 본 논문의 Ⅱ장과 Ⅲ장에서 이 문제를 다루었다. Ⅳ장에서는 수양 방법의 일종으로서의 궁리(窮理)의 위상을 분석하였다. 정이는 초기 도학자들은 물론 후대의 도학자들과도 달리 행(行)에 대한 지(知)의 우위를 강력하게 주장하였다. 그가 구상한 공부의 처음과 끝은 얕은 앎이 깊은 앎으로 전진하는 과정일 뿐이었다. 행(行)은 그 앎이 얼마나 깊어졌는지 검증해줄 수는 있으나, 그 앎 자체를 심화시켜주지는 못한다. 그러므로 행(行)은 하나의 독립된 공부법(工夫法)이 아니요, 지(知) 공부에 포섭된 어떤 부차적인 것이다. 이때 “궁리(窮理)”가 곧 이 지(知)에 대한 공부를 대표한다. 이는 전통적으로 “정주학(程朱學)”으로 통칭되었던 송명리학(宋明理學)의 일반적인 수양법과는 조금 다른 것이다. 기존의 연구서들은 대개 정이와 주희의 수양론이 어떤 차이를 보이는지에 대해 크게 고려하지 않고 주희(朱熹: 1130 ? 1200, 자 元晦, 호 晦庵)의 시선에 맞추어 정이의 수양론을 규정해왔다. 하지만 정이의 궁리가 수양론의 전반을 ‘일원적(一元的)’으로 관통하고 있는 반면, 주희의 궁리는 역행(力行)이나 함양(涵養)과 함께 ‘병립(竝立)’하는 모습을 보인다. 이는 중요한 차이로, 본 논문에서는 이 점을 분석하여 정이의 사상적 특색이 주희와 어떻게 다른지를 드러내고자 하였다. 이처럼 정이의 사상적 구조는 내면과 외면 궁구(窮究)의 통일, 인간과 천지(天地)의 통일, 지(知)와 행(行)의 통일로 이루어져 있다. 그러므로 그의 사상의 가장 현저한 특징은 통일성(統一性, unity)이며 이 점에 있어서 그는 정호와 상당히 가까운, 그리고 주희와 조금 다른 사상가임이 드러난다.

[국내논문]

本文討論有關『伊川易傳』中的國家論問題a 程伊川的哲學理論和現實的經世問題集中表現在他的『伊川易傳』裏a 本文將根據『伊川易傳』特別是國家論的思想觀點, 來重點討論程伊川在『伊川易傳』中提到的國家的起源與目的d 理治國論d 理想的政治秩序和國家統治的正當性等問題a 程伊川基本上認爲社會和國家來自於個體的整合, Ss社會與國家就是個人的聚集a 他認爲國家和君主的出現是維持人類社會秩序的必然u"物, 是伴隨著人類社會的u"生和發展而自然u"生的, 是整合人類社會秩序的內在要求a 國家是由個人構成的, 是爲了引導人能Y 按照秩序和正義生活的存在a 在這裏, 有一個高於一切人和國家的d需要共同遵守的普遍法則, 他稱之爲理d 天道或天理a 治理國家的原則和根據也不得不遵守“理”a 程伊川認爲“理”是適用於一切人類的行爲規範之總和, 維持家庭d 社會和國家全面秩序的根據a 由於程伊川把理作爲包括政治在內的所有人類行爲的標准, 因此他主張經世致用理念的方向也是根據“理”的“理治國論”a 程伊川認爲人類如聚集, “不可以苟合而己”, 必須有次序行列過程a 爲了形成國家的秩序, 不但需要有等級秩序的序, 而且等級秩序間的“和”也是必需的a 現實中不可能人人平等, 必然存在君子和小人d 地位的尊卑等名分制a 這裏更爲必要的是上下尊卑之間的和諧問題a 因爲不能解決該問題的國家, 其未來是無法得到保障的a 這裏程伊川_7調了“和”與“序”的統一a 伊川通過“保合大和”論述國家的理想秩序a 程伊川效法天道維持秩序與和諧方式的“保合大化”, 提出“萬國咸寧”, Ss國家或者共同體也可以維持秩序與和諧a 程伊川基本上把君臣d 君民關系當做陰陽和諧的統一體, 否定了君主權力的}U對性, 認爲君臣和君民的相對性是陰陽的相互依存性和諧關系的體現a 在此他提出了所謂王權合法性的根據問題a 他_7調了君主個人的道德修養與現實政治間的比例關系, 體現了儒家傳統的聖王理念a

[해외논문]

This study examines the theory of education and teaching methodology based on li-system which was studied by Neo-confucianist 伊川(Yi-Chuan)in Northern-Song university. 伊川(Yi-Chuan) systematized li-system which was a principle of existence and a backbone of Neo-Confucian thinking system. He also systematized mind logically by approaching the human mind problem subjectively which Neo-confucianism was relatively inferior to the Taoism and Buddhism at that time. He played an important role to bring not only principle of existence but also human mind into relief in Neo-confucianism.伊川(Yi-Chuan)’s Education was mainly divided into two categories based on li-system that were education aims and Training methodology. The purpose of his education theory was “being a saint” like the tradition of Advanced Confucianism. Saint is a human being who is checking the life of people in colorful ways in the highest place, and he is also a complete human having the law of nature. At time same time, a saint is an extremely good natured human being that could be presented as a typical model which is different from ordinary people. The importance of a saint as his purpose of education is that he proved a person who has a certain given set of pure energy is not a saint, but anyone could be a saint by converting murky temperament into pure one through learning. In other word, he brought ‘ the conversion of Opened Saint’. He thought that people could be a saint through learning, and he divided learning method into two things. They were 居敬(JuJing) which was the way to cultivate the mind to catch and 格物窮理(gewuqiongli) which was a pathways to study that fosters nature.He thought that through those, people could change their innate temperament into good one, and it could lead themselves to the state of a saint by penetrating all work and things of the world extensively. This was the theory of education he systemized.

[해외논문]

The paper study for Cheng Yi's 'Geogyeong gungli' theory. Geogyeong means that someone seek to produce a state of openness, inner calm and increased self-awareness. In this way, we concentrate on one thing instead of spreading to the other place. Gungli means that it studies the essential nature of things as method of acquiring knowledge. As a result of this studying, I recognize an intrinsic attribute about myself. In the processing of the method, first of all, we make our mind calmness through Geogyeong and then knowing the theories of the world through Gungli. In the other way, we can have our mind calmness through Gungli. There are two methods, but it is just same thing finally.We wish to receive our peace of mind and to live our life energetically through this way.

[국내논문]

본고는 양계산업 발전을 위해 각 시.군 등 지자체에서 왕성한 활동을 벌이고 있는 축산관련 공무원을 찾아 매월 릴레이 형식으로 탐방을 실시, 지자체의 활동은 물론 인물을 소개하고 있다. 이달은 경기도 이천시 김상원 축산과장을 만나 이천시의 축산 정책 등을 들어보았다.

[해외논문]

Cheng YiChuan made an original interpretation of Spring and Autumn Annals, differentiated from the existing three books that have remained the major interpretations of Spring and Autumn Annals. He brought Spring and Autumn Annals into the category of philosophy by defining Spring and Autumn Annals as a key to seeking the truth and the fundamental principles of governing. According to his interpretation, the righteous rules suggested in Spring and Autumn Annals are in the same direction with what the philosophy has sought and they also include the logic interpenetrating both the law of nature and the human’s moral duty. Furthermore, Spring and Autumn Annals is a sort of scriptures, the embodiment of human ethics which reflects those logics upon the real world and suggests the most basic principles of governing. Hence, Spring and Autumn Annals is the representative scriptures not only for reasoning the truth of world but also for grasping human ethics to be applied to the real world. What Cheng YiChuan tried to address through the interpretation of Spring and Autumn Annals is to ultimately establish the ethical world order to have been sought in philosophy as well as to newly manifest the original value Spring and Autumn Annals has had.

[국내논문]

伊川(程$, 자는 正叔, 1033-1107)은 끊어진 聖人의 도를 계승하는 것으로 자신의 사명을 삼고, 유학의 경전을 理學的 관점에서 재해석함으로써 성리학의 토대를 마련하였다. 이천은 평생 동안 유학의 義理로 '周易'을 해석하는 것에 심혈을기울여 '伊川易傳'을 저술하였는데, 거기에는 그의 사상적 정수가 온축되어 있다. 일반적으로 지금까지 이천에 관한 대부분의 연구들은 그의 易學理論과 性理論에만 주목하여 經世致用의 부분은 소홀했던 것이 사실이다. 그러나 이천은 修己治人이라는 儒學의 기본자세를 줄곧 견지하여왔기 때문에 그의 경세치용적인 면모에도 깊게 주목할 필요가 있다. 易의 요지가 ‘開物成務’에 있기 때문에 '伊川易傳'을 궁구하면 이천의 治國思想 또한 알 수 있다. 이천은 理를 치국의 이론적 근거로 삼았다. 이천은 理란 萬事萬物에 두루 내재해있는 근본적인 원칙이며, 理는 본질적으로 하나(一)라고 인식하였다. 이천은 ‘體用一源’의 사상을 천명하여 본질과 현상이 하나의 근원임을 밝힘으로써 인간의 행위 또한 모든 것의 근본인 理를 따라야 함을 주장하였다. 그리고 이천은 理가 하나로 동일하기 때문에 上下가 서로 통할 수 있으며, 만백성의 마음을 하나로 하여 나라를 다스릴 수 있고, 나아가 천지만물의 保合大和까지 가능하다고 말한다.이천은 나라를 다스리는 방법에는 治道와 治法의 두 가지가 있다고 생각하였다.치도는 德治를 의미하는데 修齊治平이 여기에 해당한다. 치법은 紀綱과 법과 형벌로써 다스리는 것이니 綱紀法制가 여기에 해당한다. 이천은 양자는 상호보완적이어서 둘 중에 어느 한쪽도 폐할 수 없다고 하였지만 근본적으로는 덕치를 숭상하는 입장을 견지하고 있다. 이천은 敎化를 중시하였고 넓은 의미에서 형벌과 정벌까지도그 속에 敎化가 내재해 있다고 인식하였다.이천은 치국의 完成은 大同의 구현이라고 보았는데, 공자가 말한 大同에 天을 연결시킴으로써 大同의 外延을 더욱 확대시켰다. 즉 대동의 실천은 하늘의 뜻이기 때문에 필연이라는 것이다. 대동세계란 지극히 공정하여 사사롭게 친하는 情이 없고, 사사로운 바에 얽매임이 없으며, 천하가 모두 함께 어울리는 지극히 조화로운 세상이다. 지금, 세계 도처에서는 私事로운 마음이 치성하여 분쟁과 갈등과 시비와 고통이 끊이지 않고 있다. 이럴 때일수록 天下爲公의 대동정신이 절실히 요청된다.따라서 大同精神은 時空을 초월하여 인류가 영원히 추구해야할 이상적 가치라고 할 것이다.

[해외논문]

Based on the sedimentological and geochemical analyses of two sediment cores recovered from the Lake Shinji, Shimane Prefecture, western Japan, the status of they sedimentary environment before and after the East diversion event of the Hii River (A.D.1939) was compared. We discuss the change in the sedimentation system during these periods.Recent Lake Shinji showing the stratified structure in water column has two sedimentation systems ; 1) the system for sedimentation of fine grain from the Hii River, and 2) the system for sedimentation of coarse grain transported by the density current from the Oohashi River. Based on these systems, we observed the bimodal grain-size distribution in the lake sediment.Before the East diversion event of the Hii River, the paleoenvironment of Lake Shinji seemed to have low primary productivity, a low sedimentation rate, and poorly oxygenated, brackish water. We considered that this paleoenvironment was formed by decreasing amounts of nutrient input while sediments reduced inflow of the river system except for the Hii River. In the sedimentation system before the event, we estimated that the sediment was transported by the density current from the Oohashi River.Since the East diversion event of the Hii River, the sedimentation rates of the 2002-S1 core and the 2003-S2 core are 2.23 mm/y and 4.45 mm/y, respectively. These sedimentation rates are very high when compared with sedimentation rates before the event. Since the event, bimodal grain-size distribution of sediments had been observed in both core samples. We consider that Lake Shinji soon after the event had two sedimentation systems similar to the recent system. However, we assume from the results of this study that the density current from the east side is be reduced by the aggradations of the Oohashi River based on the results of this study.

[국내 학위논문]

A research subject is about the way to adapt a core of ecomuseum which is based on community involvement and local heritage within rural society in Korea. We apply rice-theme rural ecomuseum to Buraemi community in Yulmyeon, Icheon city and our goal is to suggest Korean ecomuseum model local farmers and residents become main agent of local culture. ‘What is a museum? What is the meaning of museum to modern people?’ We start the research bringing out those questions. Traditional museums have shown the public cultural heritage that keeps artifacts with different backgrounds. Tracing back to a history of museum, the first collection was exclusive properties of winners in the wars and the rich but the collections opened to the public only after the historical events such as the civil war. The history of museum has changed from conservation to exhibition and from exhibition to public participation. Recently, putting emphasis on public participation, there have been broad attempts to exhibition, experience and education. The rise of the importance of not only tangible heritage but also intangible heritage has dreamed up a new perspective that people have looked their lifestyle and whole community as heritage. ecomuseum movement-that looks local heritage, artifacts, lifestyle, daily life, building, folklore, memory, and residents as the same concepts of traditional collections-was started after 1970s in and around France. George Henri Riviè re and Hugues de Varine tested and realized ideals of ecomuseum through ‘Le Creusot-Montceau EcoMusé e’. Ecomuseum spread out to European countries and to Japan has contributed to community revitalization and revelation the proud of local residents. Establishing an ecomuseum needs three factors, museum activity, community involvement and heritage conservation. Through case studies, we divided ecomuseum to farming base, industrial base, natural environment base, historical and cultural base and theme park base. Also, ecomuseum management takes a cultural contents aspect - using local heritage and resources, combining the wide range of disciplines, and creating the new value but storytelling, restoration and authenticity, and heritage conservation and practical use are especially important. In this research, we studied farming base ecomuseum especially as the means of sustainable rural development. We researched abroad cases and similar domestic cases which showed a new meaning of rural life as a local culture heritage and a way to make farming base ecomuseum community. We analyzed Bresse bourguignonne Ecomuseum in France for an abroad case and ecomuseum community project in Baegun-myeon, Jinan-gun, Jeollabuk-do putting into MACDAB index. The result showed that Bresse bourguignonne is a very ideal form of ecomuseum and ecomuseum community project in Baegun-myeon, Jinan-gun, Jeollabuk-do has potential for the development satisfied some factors of ecomuseum. Putting an importance in the local heritage, community involvement and rural cultural contents, we conducted the research from different viewpoints to suggest Buraemi community in Yul-myeon, Icheon city as a case of farming base ecomuseum. First, we divided the local culture of Yul-myeon, Icheon city which has been a transmitting role of rice farming and agriculture to history & natural environment, industry & specialties of the regions, cultural heritage & folklore and folk tales. Second, about community involvement, we researched the current state of residents and local festival ‘four seasons of Yul-myeon’ then we studied the character of residents and tried to figure out the way of developing the potential and the capability to manage ecomuseum. In the research of the rural cultural contents of Yul-myeon, Icheon city, we conducted intensive research on Buraemi community as a model of ecotourism community. This was to verify that community building business experience and accumulated power of this community can start a ripple effect throughout the whole community or not. In addition, we studied farming school in Yul-myeon and the way of making network. In an initiative of Buraemi ecomuseum in Yul-myeon, Icheon city, we chose agricultural contents of Yul-myeon from the results of the research as a main theme and suggested a plan and a model of ecomuseum based on rice theme, the specialty of this community. A core facility would be located at Buraemi community where we verified the passion and the effort among other ecotourism community and we proposed a plan of Buraemi ecomuseum in Yul-myeon, Icheon city from a view of cultural contents. Raising a question especially about the government lead top-down model of community revitalization project, we applied to Yul-myeon, Icheon city, Gyeonggi-do a concept of ecomuseum -- main agents of the project, residents think about a problem of community, create a way, and lead the project by gathering fields, heritage, community character, elders, local residents and memories all together. Moreover, we established strategies and policies for the farming base ecomuseum management resulted from different point of views and proposed a vitalization plan with cultural contents. This research has significant meanings in three points. First, we highlight the rural area alienated from the industrialization before in a different view, set farmers living in the rural to main agent of local culture, and try new attempt of local culture movement ‘ecomuseum’. Second, this research suggests Korean ecomuseum model. As ecomuseum was started in France, spread out through the world and accepted by the means of community building business especially in Japan, proposing the model can have a meaning on the practical side. Last, this research suggests a direction to the rural area in the macro and long-term view based on community building business carried out before in Korea. In the research, we try to suggest Korean ecomuseum model facilitating sustainable rural development, which can be valued in the future, as a community building business model in the rural area.

[국내논문]

Objective : The medicine originated from Taoist tradition which identifies itself with medicine, making a harmonic combination between taoist theory of life fostering(養生論) and confucianism was a everlasting task for Ru-Yi, Li-chan who attach great importance to Confucian-medicine. Differing from the ideological background of precedent medical theorists, made his own confucianism the main theory of medicine. I think we need a rational reflection over these issues and am trying to focus on it. I hereby analyse the Ru-Yi, Li-chan's viewpoint on Taoism since after Ming(明)-dynasty during which his theoretical ideology has bloomed in chinese medicine. Method : I analyze the sentences in Li-Chan's Yisuerumen(Medical beginner's book, 醫學入門) From the perspective of Confucianism and Taoism. Result & Conclusion : Li-Chan understood Taoism from the viewpoint of Confucian medicine. Thus, He accepted the life-fostering of Taoism from the point of Confucian-moral cultivation. He emphasized the role of the Xin(mind, 心) and he was rejected Taoist mysticism. He interpreted Medical classics-Huangdineijing(黃帝內經) from the perspective of the Confucian classics and understanding of each other was similar position. Because he was a Confucian scholar and medical scientists.

[해외논문]

This paper presents an investigation into the chapter of preside at lawsuit in The Great Learning, one of core Confucian classics. The Great Learning is a classic separated from The Book of Rites along with The Doctrine of the Mean and started to attract full attention from Neo-Confucian scholars in Song Dynasty. The interest of Neo-Confucian scholars in The Great Learning evolved into their question about the order of its old texts. The Cheong-Ming-Dao and Cheng-Yi-Chuan brothers of Northern Song Dynasty left a changed version of its texts based on their respective philosophical understanding. Zhu-Xi confessed that his Embodied in The Great Learning was based on Cheng-Yi-Chuan's version of The Great Learning. There is a match in the basic order and system between Cheng-Yi-Chuan's version of The Great Learning and Zhu-Xi's Embodied in The Great Learning, but they differ in the chapter of preside at lawsuit. Cheng-Yi-Chuan and Zhu-Xi are in the same line in major aspects that they regarded 'studying the phenomena of nature in order to acquire knowledge' as the essence of The Great Learning and considered the chapter of preside at lawsuit as interpretations of whole course of an event from beginning to end. They, however, show different perspectives with regard to the order of chapter of preside at lawsuit and that of studying the phenomena of nature, which is connected to a question about relations between the whole course of an event from beginning to end and studying the phenomena of nature in order to acquire knowledge. While Cheng-Yi huan connected both the chapters, regarded them as a single chapter, and argued that the essence of studying the phenomena of nature in order to acquire knowledge lied in knowing the whole course of an event from beginning to end, Zhu-Xi placed the chapter of preside at lawsuit between the classics and commentaries on classics and demonstrated that the form of The Great Learning in the classics and commentaries on classics and the content of sagely within and kingly without had the structure of whole course of an event from beginning to end. In addition, he believed that the chapter of preside at lawsuit would not be enough to figure out the meaning of studying the phenomena of nature in order to acquire knowledge and wrote the chapter of Bu-wang to elucidate its meaning more clearly.

[국내논문]

Cheng YiChuan made an original interpretation of Spring and Autumn Annals, differentiated from the existing three books that have remained the major interpretations of Spring and Autumn Annals. He brought Spring and Autumn Annals into the category of philosophy by defining Spring and Autumn Annals as a key to seeking the truth and the fundamental principles of governing. According to his interpretation, the righteous rules suggested in Spring and Autumn Annals are in the same direction with what the philosophy has sought and they also include the logic interpenetrating both the law of nature and the human’s moral duty. Furthermore, Spring and Autumn Annals is a sort of scriptures, the embodiment of human ethics which reflects those logics upon the real world and suggests the most basic principles of governing. Hence, Spring and Autumn Annals is the representative scriptures not only for reasoning the truth of world but also for grasping human ethics to be applied to the real world. What Cheng YiChuan tried to address through the interpretation of Spring and Autumn Annals is to ultimately establish the ethical world order to have been sought in philosophy as well as to newly manifest the original value Spring and Autumn Annals has had.

[국내논문]

This study examines the theory of education and teaching methodology based on li-system which was studied by Neo-confucianist 伊川(Yi-Chuan)in Northern-Song university. 伊川(Yi-Chuan) systematized li-system which was a principle of existence and a backbone of Neo-Confucian thinking system. He also systematized mind logically by approaching the human mind problem subjectively which Neo-confucianism was relatively inferior to the Taoism and Buddhism at that time. He played an important role to bring not only principle of existence but also human mind into relief in Neo-confucianism.伊川(Yi-Chuan)’s Education was mainly divided into two categories based on li-system that were education aims and Training methodology. The purpose of his education theory was “being a saint” like the tradition of Advanced Confucianism. Saint is a human being who is checking the life of people in colorful ways in the highest place, and he is also a complete human having the law of nature. At time same time, a saint is an extremely good natured human being that could be presented as a typical model which is different from ordinary people. The importance of a saint as his purpose of education is that he proved a person who has a certain given set of pure energy is not a saint, but anyone could be a saint by converting murky temperament into pure one through learning. In other word, he brought ‘ the conversion of Opened Saint’. He thought that people could be a saint through learning, and he divided learning method into two things. They were 居敬(JuJing) which was the way to cultivate the mind to catch and 格物窮理(gewuqiongli) which was a pathways to study that fosters nature.He thought that through those, people could change their innate temperament into good one, and it could lead themselves to the state of a saint by penetrating all work and things of the world extensively. This was the theory of education he systemized.

[국내논문]

This study is summarized as follows. Firstly, Wang Geon(王建), the founder of Goryeo, had just reasons for the Battle of Illicheon(一利川戰鬪) : Goryeo had been acquiring its power and the time was ripe for a war with Hubaekje(後百濟). What constituted the actual cause for the Battle of Illicheon was when Dae Gwang-hyeon(大光顯), the last Crown Prince of Balhae(渤海), as well as Gyeon Hwon(甄萱), the king and founder of Hubaekje(Later Baekje) who had been forced out by his son Shin Gom(神劒), was warmly accepted by Wang Geon. To crown it all, the last king of Shilla, King Gyeongsun, surrendered his title and country to Wang Geon. This came from the embracement policy Wang Geon had consistently maintained since his enthronement, in addition to an impressive display of Goryeo"s power through the battles at Gochanggun(古昌郡) and Unju(運州). After all this, Wang Geon reached a definite decision to completely conquer Hubaekje, and in September 936, he implemented the Battle of Illicheon. Secondly, Wang Geon chose a detour attack strategy to go round Illicheon in Gyeongsang-do, instead of moving straight southwards, with the purpose of letting Baekje soldiers be caught on the wrong foot. The existence of the Samyeon Mountain Fortress(三年山城) could have been much of a burden in the eyes of Wang Geon if the troops of Goryeo had moved from Cheonanbu(天安府) straight southwards to attack Baekje. In July 928, Wang Geon himself led his troops to attack the Samyeon Mountain Fortress, but to no avail. Hence, he chose the strategy of luring the Shin Gam-led army into a place where the troops of Goryeo could avoid the Samyeon Mountain Fortress. Knowing that mobilizing a large-scale force all at once involved economic burdens and some problems with human resources, Wang Geon mustered friendly forces in an effort to ease such burdens and make his trickery work wonders. In addition, Gyeon Hwon was deliberately encouraged to lead a host of troops as a means of destroying the morale of the whole soldiers in the service of Baekje, Wang Geon, who furtively called in amicable forces, selected Illicheon in Gyeongsang-do as a great place for enticing the Shin Gem-led army and won a sweeping victory. Thirdly, when it comes to the routes taken by Goryeo"s troops, this paper presented a dispersion movement method that used sea and river routes, and overland routes on which no examination was conducted in the previous studies. The point of argument this paper makes is that such routes based on the dispersion movement method can ensure the maximization of the Wang Geon-devised trickery. Naturally, the key to such kind of successful trickeries is fast-paced marching. The troops of Goryeo, including the Wang Geon-led one, started from Gaegyeong(開京) where they took different sea and river routes, and overland routes. Having arrived in Cheonanbu earlier than they had expected, they must have made a sudden change in the path to be taken by the marching troops toward the east-more precisely-toward Illicheon. After all, the Shin Corn-led army met with a disastrous defeat in the Battle of Illicheon and Shin Gom yielded to Wang Geon. Lastly, an examination was performed on the "extraordinarily strong cavalry units of northern races" (hereinafter referred to as "Je-Beon-Gyung-Gi") as a unique entity that took part in the Battle of Illicheon. Wang Geon won Je-Beon-Gyung-Gi over to his side for the Battle of Illicheon, thereby maximizing his trickery against the Shin Gom"s army. In return for Je-Beon-Gyung-Gi"s participation in the Battle of Illicheon, Goryeo did not advance farther north. In other words, Je-Beon-Gyeong-Gi"s participation in the Battle of Illicheon explains why Goryeo"s northern borderline stretched from the lower reaches of the Chungchun River via the Maheoltan River(馬歇灘) to the Bay of Youngheung during Taejo

[국내논문]

[국내논문]

짧은 역사이지만 우리 낙농산업은 규모와 질적측면에서 비약적인 성장을 이뤘다. 하지만 낙농강대국 시장 개방화로 농가 스스로 경쟁력을 키우기 위한 노력이 요구되는 상황에서, 꾸준한 혈통관리와 목장환경 구축으로 경쟁력을 갖춰나가고 있는 동복목장(원유국 윤정숙 대표, 경기도 이천시 마장면)을 찾아가 이야기를 나눠 보았다.

[국내논문]

The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of ‘Guacai’ as one of the ways of interpreting Yi in Yichengzhuan, which is Cheng Yichuan’s only work. Guacai is so unique a concept that it could not be found before Cheng Yichuan introduced it in the process of interpreting Zhouyi. In Yichengzhuan, Guacai is all seen in 36 guas and plays a very important role in interpreting hexagram. The concept of ‘cai (才)’ was not created by Cheng Yichuan. It originated from Hu yuan (胡瑗). Guacai used in Yichengzhuan is, however, a more advanced concept and plays a very important role in interpreting Zhouyi. It is not easy to understand the concept of Guacai used in Yichengzhuan. The reason is that Cheng Yichuan did not define its concept clearly and that it was used together with various concepts in actual use. Thus, this study, first, intends to analyze the concept of Guacai used in Yichengzhuan and thereby examine what role Guacai plays in Cheng Yichuan's interpretation of Zhouyi. This discussion will help not only fully identify from what perspective Cheng Yichuan interpreted Zhouyi but clearly confirm for what Yichuanyi (伊川易) is referred to as the meaning pattern of Yi, through Guacai.

[국내논문]

The paper study for Cheng Yi's 'Geogyeong gungli' theory. Geogyeong means that someone seek to produce a state of openness, inner calm and increased self-awareness. In this way, we concentrate on one thing instead of spreading to the other place. Gungli means that it studies the essential nature of things as method of acquiring knowledge. As a result of this studying, I recognize an intrinsic attribute about myself. In the processing of the method, first of all, we make our mind calmness through Geogyeong and then knowing the theories of the world through Gungli. In the other way, we can have our mind calmness through Gungli. There are two methods, but it is just same thing finally.We wish to receive our peace of mind and to live our life energetically through this way.

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